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STEP 1 : Compute vegetation indices and masks for each SENTINEL-2 date


The input parameters are:

  • input_directory: the path of the folder corresponding to a tile or area containing a folder for each SENTINEL date containing a file for each band. The folders must contain the corresponding date in their name in one of the following formats: YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY_MM_DD, YYYYMMDD, DD-MM-YYYY, DD_MM_YYYY or DDMMYYYY. The band files must contain the name of the corresponding band (B2 or B02, B3 or B03, etc.).
  • data_directory: The path of the output folder, in which the vegetation indices and masks will be written
  • lim_perc_cloud : The maximum percentage of clouds. If the cloudiness percentage of the SENTINEL date, calculated from the provider's classification, is higher than this threshold, the date is ignored. If set to -1, all dates are used regardless of their cloudiness, and the provider's mask is not needed.
  • interpolation_order : Interpolation order for the conversion of the bands from a 20m resolution to a 10m resolution. 0 : nearest neighbor, 1 : linear, 2 : bilinear, 3 : cubic
  • sentinel_source : Provider of the data among 'THEIA' and 'Scihub' and 'PEPS'.
  • apply_source_mask : If True, the mask of the provider is also used to mask the data
  • soil_detection : If True, bare ground is detected and used as mask, but the process might not be adapted to other situations than THEIA data on France's coniferous forests. If False, mask from formula_mask is applied.
  • formula_mask : formula whose result would be binary, format described here. Is only used if soil_detection is False.
  • vi : Vegetation index used, can be one of the indices provided in the package (CRSWIR, NDVI, NDWI), or any spectral index can be added using the path_dict_vi parameter.
  • compress_vi : If True, stores the vegetation index as low-resolution floating-point data as small integers in a netCDF file. Uses less disk space but can lead to very small difference in results as the vegetation index is rounded to three decimal places
  • ignored_period : Period of the year whose Sentinel acquisitions are ignored, must be a list of two dates in the format "MM-DD" (ex : ["11-01","05-01"]).
  • extent_shape_path : Path of a shapefile containing a polygon used to restrict the calculation to an area. If not provided, the calculation is applied to the whole tile
  • path_dict_vi : Path to a text file used to add potential vegetation indices. If not filled in, only the indices provided in the package can be used (CRSWIR, NDVI, NDWI). The file ex_dict_vi.txt gives an example for how to format this file. One must fill the index's name, formula, and "+" or "-" according to whether the index increases or decreases when anomalies occur.

Note : input_directory and data_directory have no default value and must be filled in. The sentinel_source must correspond to the provider of your data. The package has been almost exclusively tested with THEIA data.


The outputs of this first step, in the data_directory folder, are :

  • A TileInfo file which contains information about the computed area, dates used, raster paths... It is imported and used in the subsequent steps.
  • In the VegetationIndex folder, a raster for each date corresponding to the vegetation index calculated for each pixel
  • In the Mask folder, a binary raster for each date where the masked pixels take the value "1", and the valid pixels take the value "0".
  • In the DataSoil folder, three rasters:
    • count_soil : the number of successive dates with soil anomalies
    • first_date_soil: The index of the first date with a soil anomaly in the latest series of soil anomalies
    • state_soil: A binary raster whose pixels take the value "1" if detected as soil (at least three successive soil anomalies), and "0" otherwise. From state_soil and first_date_soil, it is therefore possible to know which pixels are detected as bare soil/cutting, and the date of detection. count_soil allows the updating of this detection using new SENTINEL dates.

How to use

From a script

from fordead.steps.step1_compute_masked_vegetationindex import compute_masked_vegetationindex
compute_masked_vegetationindex(input_directory = <input_directory>, data_directory = <data_directory>)

From the command line

fordead masked_vi [OPTIONS]

See detailed documentation on the site

How it works


Importing information on previous processes, deletion of obsolete results

Informations related to the previous processes, if any, are imported (parameters, data paths, used dates...). If the parameters used have been modified, all the results from this step onwards are deleted. Thus, unless the parameters have been modified, the calculations are only performed on the new SENTINEL dates.

Functions used: TileInfo(), methods of the TileInfo class import_info(), add_parameters(), delete_dirs()

Filtering out overly cloudy dates

The cloudiness of each SENTINEL date is calculated from the provider's mask.

Functions used: get_cloudiness(), get_date_cloudiness_perc()

We then use only the new dates in the input_directory folder with a cloudiness lower than lim_perc_cloud.

Importing and resampling of the SENTINEL data

The bands of interest of the filtered dates are imported and resampled to 10m

Functions used: import_resampled_sen_stack()

Calculation of the vegetation index

The selected vegetation index is calculated from the vegetation indices and formulas already provided in the package, or added through a text file whose path is corresponds to parameter path_dict_vi (see get_dict_vi.

Functions used : compute_vegetation_index() Invalid values (division by zero...) are changed to zero.

Computing the mask

Computing default masks

The following masks are computed :

  • Detection of some shadows: 0 in any of the bands
  • Detection of areas outside the satellite swath: Value less than 0 in any of the bands (should have the value -10000 for THEIA data)
  • Invalid values of the vegetation index are also masked (division by zero...)

If apply_source_mask is True, the provider's mask is also applied. Functions used: get_source_mask()

The rest of the process depends on the selected mask mode, if soil_detection is True, the mask includes a detection of bare ground which might no be adapted depending on situations and Sentinel-2 data source.

If soil_detection is True

The mask for each date is computed in the three following steps.

Fonctions utilisées : compute_masks()

Creation of the premask

Detection of soil anomalies : (B11 > 1250) AND (B2 < 600) AND ((B3 + B4) > 800) Invalids : aggregation of the shadow mask, out of swath mask and highly visible clouds (B2 >= 600)

Functions used: get_pre_masks()

Bare ground detection

Pixels are detected as bare ground if they have three consecutive dates with soil anomalies (soil_anomaly is True), without counting invalid dates.

Functions used: detect_soil()

Cloud detection

To detect clouds, we take the set of highly visible clouds (B2 > 700), then add the thinner clouds AND . Then, the pixels detected as bare ground or ground anomaly, with which there may be confusion, are removed before a dilation of three pixels is used to recover the edges of the clouds.

Functions used: detect_clouds()

Aggregation of masks

Aggregation of shadows, clouds, out of swath pixels, bare ground, bare ground anomalies.

If soil_detection is False

The mask defined by the user using the parameter formula_mask is added to the default masks. This formula must be a logical operation involving Sentinel-2 band names (ex : "B2 > 600"). It can also use logical operators, as would be used on xarrays, OR (|), AND (&) et NOT (~) (ex : "(B2 > 600) & (B11 > 1000) | ~(B3 <= 500)")

Fonctions utilisées : compute_user_mask(), compute_vegetation_index()

Writing the results

The vegetation indices, masks and ground detection data are written. All parameters, data paths and dates used are also saved.

Functions used: write_tif(), TileInfo method save_info()